[In the text of the present booklet all unnecessary terms have  been avoided.   Whenever  a  good English equivalent  could  be  found,  the foreign expression has been dropped.   Nevertheless,  the  introduction not  only  of  many foreign-sounding names,  but also of  some  of  the original terms, was unavoidable.

Now  we have to state that the Eastern people,  at least  those  of Hindu culture during the golden age of Buddhism in India,  adopted  the habit  of translating not only terms but also names.   A  German  whose name  is Schmied is not called Smith in English,  but  Buddhists,  when translating from Pali into Sanskrit, change Siddhattha into Siddhartha.  The  reason  of  this strange custom lies in the  fact  that  Buddhists originally  employed  the popular speech and did not adopt the  use  of Sanskrit until about five hundred years after Buddha.   Since the  most important  names and terms,  such as Nirvana,  Karma and  Dharma,  have become  familiar  to  us  in their  Sanskrit  form,  while  their  Pali equivalents,  Nibbana,  Kamma and Dhamma,  are little used, it appeared advisable  to prefer for some terms the Sanskrit forms,  but there  are instances  in  which  the Pali,  for some reason  or  other,  has  been preferred  by English authors [e.g.,  Krisha Gautami is  always  called Kisagotami],  we present here in the Glossary both the Sanskrit and the Pali forms.

Names which have been Anglicised, such as “Brahma, Brahman, Benares, Jain,  and karma,” have been preserved in their accepted form.   If  we adopt  the  rule  of  transferring Sanskrit and  Pali  words  in  their stemform,  as we do in most cases (e.g.,  Nirvana,  atman), we ought to call Brahma “Brahman,” and karma “karman.”  But usus est tyrannus.   In a popular book it not wise to swim against the stream.

Following  the common English usage of saying  “Christ,”  not  “the Christ,” we say in the title “Buddha,” not “the Buddha.”]

Abhinnya,  p.,  Abhijya,  skt.,  supernatural  talent.   There are  six

abhinnyas   which   Buddha   acquired   when   attaining   perfect enlightenment: (1) the celestial eye, or an intuitive insight of the nature of any object in any universe;  (2) the celestial ear, or the ability  to understand any sound produced in any universe;  (3)  the power of assuming any shape or form;  (4) knowledge of all forms  of pre-existence of one’s self and others;  (5) intuitive knowledge  of the  minds of all beings;  and (6) knowledge of the finality of  the stream of life. - LX.

Aciravati, p. and skt., a river. - XXXIV.

Agni, p. and skt., a god of the Brahmans, the god of fire. - XVI.

Ajatasattu,  p.,  Ajatasatru,  skt.,  the son of king Bimbisara and his

successor to the throne of Magadha. - XXXIX, LXXXVIII.

Alara, p., Arada, skt., a prominent Brahman philosopher.  His full name

is Alara Kalama. - IX, XCV.

Ambapali,  the courtesan,  called “Lady Amra” in Fo-Sho-Hing-Tsan-King.

It is  difficult for us to form a proper conception of  the  social position  of  courtesans at Buddha’s time in India.   This  much  is sure,  that they were not common prostitutes,  but ladies of wealth, possessing  great influence.   Their education was similar  to  the hetair in Greece,  where Aspasia played so prominent a part.  Their rank  must  sometimes have been like that of  Madame  Pompadour  in France at the court of Louis XIV.   They rose to prominence,  not be birth,  but by beauty,  education,  refinement,  and  other  purely personal accomplishments,  and many of them were installed by  royal favour.   The first paragraphs of Khandhaka VIII of  the  Mahavagga [Sacred Books of the East, Vol. XVII, pp. 171-172] gives a fair idea of the important role of courtesans in those days.   They were  not necessarily venal daughters of lust, but, often women of distinction and repute, worldly, but not disrespectable. - XCII, XCIII.

Amitabha,  p.  and  skt.,  endowed with boundless  light,  from  amita,

infinite, immeasurable, and abha, ray of light, splendour, the bliss of enlightenment.   It  is a term of later Buddhism  and  has  been personified as Amitabha Buddha,  or Amita.   The invocation of  the all-saving name of Amitabha Buddha is a favourite tenet of the Lotus or Pure Land sect, so  popular in China and Japan.   Their  poetical conception  of a paradise in the West is referred to in Chapter  LX.  Southern  Buddhism knows nothing of a personified Amitabha  and  the Chinese travellers Fa-hien and Hiuen-tsang do not mention  it.   The oldest allusion to Amita is found in the Amitayus Sutra,  translated C.E. 148-170.  [See Eitel, Handbook of Chinese Buddhism, pp. 7-9.] - LX.

Ananda,  p.  and skt., Buddha’s cousin and his favourite disciple.  The


Anathapindika,  p.  and  skt.,  (also  called  Anathapindada  in  skt.)

literaly  “One  who gives alms (pinda) to the unprotected  or  needy (anatha).”   A  wealthy lay devotee famous for  his  liberality  and donor of the Jetavana vihara. - XXIII, XXIV, XXV, XXVI, LVIII.

Annabhara,  p.  and  skt.,  literally  “he who brings  food”;  name  of

Sumana’s slave. - LXXI.

Annyata,   p.,  Ajnyata,  skt.,  literally  “knowing”,  a  cognomen  of

Kondannya, the first disciple of Buddha. - XVII.

Anuruddha, a prominent disciple of buddha, known as the great master of

Buddhist metaphysics.    He was a cousin of Buddha, being the second son of Amritodana, a brother of Suddhodana. - XXIX, XCVII, XCVIII.

Arahat, p., Arhant, skt., a saint (See also Saint in Index.) - XXXIV.

Arati,  dislike,  hatred.   The opposite of rati.   The name of one  of

Mara’s daughters. - XI.

Asita, p. and skt., a prophet. - IV.

Assaji, p., Asvajit, skt., one of Buddha’s disciples by whose dignified

demeanour Sariputta is converted. - XXII.

Atman, skt., Atta, p., breath as the principle of life, the soul, self,

the ego.  To some of the old Brahman schools the atman constitutes a metaphysical being in man, which is the thinker of his thoughts, the perceiver of his sensations,  and the doer of his  doings.   Buddha denies the existence of an atman in this sense. - IX, LIII.

Balani,  or panyca-balani,  p. and skt., (the singular is bala, power),

the  five moral powers (also called  panyca-indriyani),  which  are:

Faith,  energy, memory or recollection, meditation or contemplation, and wisdom or intuition.

Beluva, a village near Vesali. - XCIII.

Benares,  the  well-known city in India;  Anglicised form of  Varanasi,

skt., and Baranasi, p. (See Kasi.) - XV, XVIII, XXXVII, LXXXVII.

Bhagavat,  p.,  Bhagavant,  skt.,  the man of  merit,  worshipful,  the

Blessed One.  A title of honour given to buddha. - VII, LIX, LXXV.

Bhallika, p. and skt., a merchant. - XIII.

Bharadvaja, p. and skt., name of a Brahman. - XLIX, LXXIV.

Bhavana,   p.   and  skt.,   meditation.    There  are  five  principle

   meditations:   metta-bhavana,  on  love;  karuna-bhavana,  on  pity;

mudita-bhavana, on  joy;  asubha-bhavana,  on impurity;  and upekha-bhavana,  on serenity.  [see Rhys Davids’s Buddhism, pp. 170-171.] - LX.

Bhikkhu,  p., bhikshu, skt., mendicant, monk, friar; the five bhikkhus,


their robes,  XXXIV;  bhikkhus rebuked, XXXVIII; bhikkhus prospered,

LXXXVIII; the sick bhikkhu, LXXXVI

Bhikkhuni, p., bhikshuni, skt., nun. - XXXII, XXXIV.

Bimbisara,  p.  and skt.,  the king of Magadha; often honoured with the

cognomen “Sainya,” skt., or “Seniya,”  p.,  i.e.,  “the  warlike  or military.” - VIII, XX, XXI, XXX, XXXV, XXXIX, LXXXVIII.

Bodhi, p. and skt., knowledge, wisdom, enlightenment. - LII.

Bodhianga or Bojjhanga,  or Satta or Bojjhanga,  p.,  meditation on the

seven kinds of wisom, which are: energy, recolection, contemplation, investigation of scripture, joy, repose, and serenity. - XXXIV.

Bodhisatta,  p.,  Bodhisattva,  skt.,  he  whose  essence  (sattva)  is

becoming  enlightenment (bodhi).   The term denotes (1) one  who  is about to become a Buddha,  but has not yet attained Nirvana;  (2)  a class  of saints who have only once more to be born again to  enter into  Nirvana;  (3)  in latter Buddhism any  preacher  or  religious teacher.  - IV,  VII,  VIII,  XXVIII,  XLI, LXXIII, LXXXIII, LXXXVI, LXXXVII; appearance of, VII; Bodhisattvas, XLVII.

Bodhi-tree, the tree at Buddha-Gaya, species ficus religiosa. - XI.

Brahma,  Anglicised form of skt.  stem form Brahman (nom.  s.  Brahma).

The chief God of Brahmanism,  the world-soul.  See also Sahampati. -

XIV,  XXIX,  LIX;  Brahma, a union with, XLIX; Brahma, face to face,

XLIX; Brahma’s mind, XLIX. Brahmadatta, p. and skt., (etym. given by

Brahma)  name of a mythical king    of  Kashi,  skt.,  or  Kasi,  p.  -

Brahman, the  priestly  caste  of the  Indians.   Anglicised form of Brahmana  (p.  and skt.).   Priests were selected from  the  Brahman caste, but Brahmans were not necessarily priests; they were farmers, merchants,  and  often  high  officials in  the  service  of  kings.

Brahmans,  the two,     XLIX.    Buddha, p. and skt., the Awakened One,

the  Enlightened One.   Buddha is also called Sakyamuni  (the  Sakya sage),  Sakyasimha (the Sakya Lion), Sugata (the Happy One), Satthar nom. Sattha, p.; skt., (the Teacher), Jina (the Conqueror), Bhagavat (the Blessed One), Lokanatha (the Lord of the World), Sarvajnya (the Omniscient One),  Dharmaraja (the king of  Truth),  Tathagata,  etc.  [See  Rhys Davids’s Buddhism p.  28.] Buddha,  faith  in  the,  XCI;

Buddha,  I am not the first,  XCVI; Buddha, not    Gotama, LIV; Buddha,

refuge in the, XVIII, XIX, XX, XXI, XXII, LVII, LXXX, LXXXI, LXXXII, XCIX;  Buddha replies to the deva,  LVIII; Buddha, the sower, LXXIV;

Buddha,  the  teacher,  LXI;  Buddha,  the three  personalities  of, XCVIII;  Buddha, the truth, LIV, XCVIII; Buddha, truly thou art, LI;

Buddha will arise,  another,  XCVI;  Buddha’s  birth,  IV;  Buddha’s death,  XCVII;  Buddha’s farewell address,  XCVII;  consolidation of Buddha’s religion, XXX; Buddhas, the praise of all the,  C; Buddhas, the words of immutable, VII.

Channa, p. and skt., prince Siddhatta’s driver. - VI, VII, VIII.

Chunda, p. and skt., the smith of Pava. - XCV.

Dagoba,  modernized form of skt.,  Dhatugarbha,  “relic shrine,”  (also

called  stupa in Northren Buddhism) a  mausoleum,  tower  containing relics, a kenotaph. - XCVII, XCVIII.

Danamati,  p.  and skt.,  name of a village.   The word means “having a

mind to give.” - LIII.

Deva,   p.  and  skt.,  any  celestial  spirit,  a  god  especially  of

intermediate rank,  angel.  - Deva,  questions of the, LVIII; Buddha replies to the deva, LVIII; Devas, XVI, XXI, XXXI.

Devadatta (etym.  god-given) brother of Yasodhara and Buddha’s brother-

in-law.  He tried to found a sect of his own with severer rules than those prescribed by Buddha.   He is described undoubtedly with great injustice in the Buddhist cannon and treated as a  traitor.   [About his  sect  see Rhy Davids’s Buddhism p.  181-182.]  -  XXIX,  XXXIX, LXXXVI.

Devaputta,  p.,  Devaputra,  skt., (etym. Son of a God) one of Buddha’s

disciples. - XCVII

Dhammapada, p., Dharmapada, skt. - XLVIII.

Dharma, skt., Dhamma, p., originally the natural condition of things or

beings, the law of their existence, truth, then religious truth, the law, the  ethical code of righteousness, the whole body of religious doctrines as a system, religion. - XII, XIII, XIV, XVII, XVIII, XIX, XX,  XXII,  XXIII, XXVIII, XXXV, XXXVI, XLVIII, LI, LIII, LIV, LVII, LIX,  LXI,  LXII, LXXXVI, XCVII, XCVIII; let a man take pleasure in the Dharma, LIX; the goodness of the Dharma, XLVIII.

Dharmakaya, skt., the body of the law. - XCVIII.

Dharmaraja, skt., Dhammaraja, p., the king of truth. - VII, XXV, XLVII.

Dighavu,  p.,  Dirghayu, skt., the etymology of the word is “livelong.”

Name of a mythical prince, son of king Dighiti. - XXXVII.

Dighiti,  p.,  Dirgheti,  skt.,  literally  “suffer-long.”  Name  of  a

mythical king, father of prince Dighavu. - XXXVII.

Ganges, the well known river of India. - V, XC.

Gavampati,  p.  and skt., literally “lord of cows,” a friend of Yasa. -

Gaya Kassapa, brother of the great Kassapa of Uruvela. - XIX.

Gotama,  p.,  Gautama,  skt., Buddha’s family name. - IV, XV, XVI, XIX,

XX,  XXII, XLIX, L, LI, LII, LIV, LXXIV; Gotama denies the existence of the soul,  LII; Buddha not Gotama, LIV; Gotama the samana, XCVII;

Gotama Siddhattha, XXXIX, LVI, XCVIII.

Gotami, name of any woman belonging to the Gotama family.  Kisa Gotami.

VI, LXXXIV.Hinayana, skt., the small vehicle of salvation.   A  name invented by Northern Buddhists, in contradistinction to Mahayana, to disignate  the spirit of Southern Buddhism.   The term is  not  used among Southern Buddhists.

Hirannyavati, p., Hiranyavati, skt., a river. - XCVI.

Iddhi,  p.,  Riddhi,  skt., defined by Eitel as “the dominion of spirit

over  matter.”  It is the adjusting power to one’s purpose  and  the adaption to conditions.  In popular belief it emplies exemption from the law of gravitation and the power of assuming any shape at  will.  (See Iddhipada.)

Iddhipada,  p.,  Riddhipada,  skt.,  the mode of attaining the power of

mind over matter,  four steps being needed:  (1) the will to acquire it, (2) the necessary exertion, (3) the indispensable preparation of the heart, (4) a diligent investigation of the truth. - LX.

Indra, one of the principle Brahman gods. - XLIX, LXXVIII.

Indriyani  or  pancindriyani,  the five organs of the  spritual  sence.

(See Balani.)  Isi,  p., Rishi, skt., a prophet or seer, an inspired poet,  a  hermit  having acquired wisdom in  saintly  retirement,  a recluse or anchorite.

Isvara,  skt.,  Issara, p., (lit. independant existence) Lord, Creator,

personal God, a title given to Shiva and other  great  deities.   In Buddhistic scriptures as well in Brahman the skt.  Isvara (not  the p.  Issara)  means always a transcendant  or  extramundane  God,  a personal God,  a deity distinct form, and independant of nature, who is supposed to have created the world out of nothing. - XXIII.

Jain, modernized form of skt. Jaina; an adherent of the Jain-sect which

reveres Vardhamana (Nataputta) as Buddha.  (See Jainism.) - XV.

Jainism,  a sect,  founded by Vardhamana, older than Buddhism and still

extant  in  India.  It is in  many  respects  similar  to  Buddhism.  Buddha’s main objection to the Jains was the habit of their ascetics of going naked.   The Jains lay great stress upon ascetic  exercises and self-mortification which Buddhists declare to be injurious.

Jambu, p. and skt., a tree. - VII, X.

Jambunada,  p.  and skt.,  a town of unknown site.  (Also the name of a

mountain and of a lake.)- LXXXI.  Jatila, p., “wearing matted hair.” The  Jatilas  were Brahman ascetics.   Buddha converted a  tribe  of them,  and Kassapa,  their chief,  became one of his most  prominent disciples. - XIX, XX.

Jeta, the heir apparent to the kingdom of Savatthi. - XXV.


Jhana,  p.,  Dhyana,  skt., intuition, beatic vision, ecstacy, rapture,

the result of samadhi.  Buddha did not recommend trances as means of religious devotion, urging that deliverance can be obtained only  by the recognition of the four noble truths and walking  on  the  noble eightfold  path, but he did not disturb those who  took  delight  in ecstacies and beatic visions.  Buddha’s interpretation of the Dhyana is  not  losing consciousness but a  self-possessed  and  purposive eradication of egotism.   There are four Dhyanas,  the first being a state of joy and gladness born of seclusion full  of  investigation and reflexion;  the second one,  born of deep tranquillity  without reflexion or investigation,  the third one brings the destruction of passion,  while the fourth one exists in pure equanimity,  making an end of sorrow.  [See Rhys Davids’s Buddhism pp.  175-176.]  In  the Fo-Sho-hing-tsang-king,  the Dhyana is mentioned twice only:  first, III, 12 vv. 960-978, where Arada sets forth the doctrine of the four Dhyanas  which  is not approved of  by  Buddha,  and  secondly,  at Buddha’s death; when his mind is said to have passed through all the Dhyanas. - LX, XCVII.

Jina,  p.  and skt.,  the Conqueror,  an honorary title of Buddha.  The

Jains  use the term with preference as an appellative of  Vardhamana whom they revere as their Buddha. - XV.

Jivaka,  p.  and  skt.,  physician  to king  Bimbisara.   According  to

tradition  he  was  the  son of King  Bimbisara  and  the  courtesan Salavati.   We  read  in Mahavaga VIII that after his birth  he  was exposed but saved;  then he became a most famous physician and cured Buddha of a troublesome disease contracted by wearing cast off rags.  He was an ardent disciple of Buddha and prevailed upon him to  allow the Bhikkhus to wear lay robes. - XXX.

Jotikkha, p., name of a householder, son of Subhadda. - XLII.

Kalama, p. and skt., (see Alara).

Kanthaka, prince Siddhatta’s horse. - VIII.

Kapilavatthu,  p.,  Kapilavastu,  skt.,  the capital of the Sakyas, the

birthplace of Buddha. - IV, V, XXV, XXVII, XXIX.

Karma, anglicised form of skt. stem-form karman (nom. s. karma), the p.

of which is kammam.   Action,  work, the law of action, retribution, results   of  deeds  previously  done  and  the  destiny   resulting therefrom.  Eitel defines karma as “that moral kernel [of any being] which alone survives death and continues in transmigration.”   Karma is a well-defined and scientifically exact term.   Professor  Huxley says, “In the theory of evolution, the tendency of a germ to develop according to a certain specific type,  e.g., of the kidney bean seed to grow into a plant having all the characters of Phaseolus vulgaris is  its ‘karma.’  It is ‘the last inheritor and the last result’  of all  the conditions that have affeced a line of ancestry which  goes back for many millions of years to the time when life first appeared on earth.”  We read in Anguttara Nikaya,  Pancaka Nipata: “My action (karma) is my possession,  my action is my inheritance, my action is the  womb which bears me,  my action is the race to which I am  akin [as the kidney-bean to its species],  my action is my refuge.”  [See the  article  “Karma  and Nirvana” in  Buddhism  and  Its  Christian Critics,  p.  131 ff.] - IX,  XXVIII,  XXXIX, XL, XLI, LIII, LX, XC, XCI, XCV.

Kasi,  p.  and skt., the old and holy name of Benares. - XXXVI, LXXIII.

Kassapa,  p.,  Kasyapa,  skt.,  a  name of three  brothers,  chiefs  of

Jatilas,  called after their residences,  Uruvela,  Nadi,  and Gaya.  The  name Kassapa applies mainly to Kassapa of Uruvela,  one of  the great pillars of the Buddhistic brotherhood, who took at once, after his  conversion,  a  most prominent rank among  Buddha’s  disciples.  [Kassapa of Uruvela is frequently identified with Maha-Kassapa,  the same who was president of the council of Rajagaha, but H. Dharmapala states, on the authority of the Angutthara Nikaya, that the two were altogether different persons.] - XIX, XLII, LV, XCVIII.

Khandha,  p.,  Skandha,  skt., elements; attributes of being, which are

form,  sensation,  perception,  discrimination, and consciousness. - IX.

Kilesa, p., Klesa, skt., error.

Kisa Gotami,  p.,  Krisha Gautami, skt., the slim or thin Gotami.  Name

(1) of a cousin of Buddha, mentioned in Chap. VI, (2) of the heroine in the parable of the mustard seed. - LXXXIV. Koli, a little kingdom in the neighbourhood of Kapilavatthu, the home of Yasodhara. - V.

Kondannya,  p.,  Kaundinya,  skt.,  name  of Buddha’s  first  disciple,

afterwards called Ajnyata Kaundinya in skt.,  and Annyata  Kondannya in p. - XVII.

Kosala, p. and skt., name of a country. - XXIV, XXXIV, XXXVII, XLIX.

Kosambi, p., Kausambi, skt., a city. - XXXVI, XXXVII, LXIX.

Kusinara, p., Kusinagara, skt., a town. - XCV, XCVI, XCVII.

Kutadanta,  p.  and skt., a Brahman chief in the village Danamati, also

called  Khanumat;  is  mentioned  in Spence  Hardy’s  A  Manual  of Buddhism,  p. 289 and in Sacred Books of the East, Vol. XIX, p. 242.

·         LIII.

Licchavi, p. and skt., the name of a princely family. - XCII.

Lumbini, skt., a grove named after a princesss, its owner. - IV.

Magadha,  p.  and skt.,  name of a country. - XX, XXI, XXII, XXX, XXXV,

Magga, p., Marga, skt., path; especially used in the Pali phrase “Ariyo

atthangiko  maggo,” the noble eightfold path,  which  consists  of: right views,  high aims, right speech, upright conduct, a harmless lifvelihood,  perseverance in well-doing, intellectual activity, and earnest thought.  [See Sacred Books of the East, Vol. XI, pp. 63 and 147.]

Maharaja, the great king. - XXV.

Malla, p. and skt., name of a tribe. - XCV, XCVI, XCVII.

Manasakata, p., Manasakrita, skt., a village in Kosala. - XLIX.

Mandara, p. and skt., a flower of great beauty. - IV.

Mara, p. and skt., the Evil One, the tempter, the destroyer, the god of

lust, sin, and death.- III, IV, VII, X, XI, XII, XIII, XIV. XXV, XL, XLVII, XLVIII, LIX, LX, LXXXI, XCIV.

Matali, p. and skt., name of a demon in the retinue of Yama. - LXXVIII.

Matanga,  p.  and  skt.,  literally,  of low birth;  the Matanga  caste

comprises mongrels of the lowest with higher castes. - LXXVI.

Mathura, p. and skt., name of a place. - LXXX.

Maya,  p.  and skt., Buddha’s mother.  (See Maya-devi.)  The term “veil

of  Maya,”  viz.,  the illusion of  self,  popularly  known  through Schopenhauer, does not refer to Buddha’s mother, but to the Vedantic conception of maya.  The word means “charm, magic enchantment.”- IV, XXXI.

Maya-devi, also called Maha-Maya, or simply Maya, p. and skt., the wife

of  Suddhodana  and mother of Buddha.   She died  in  childbed,  and Buddha ascends to to heaven to preach to her the good law and gospel of salvation. - IV, XXXI.

Metteyya.  p.,  Maitreya, skt., etymology, “full of kindness”; the name

of the Buddha to come. - XCVI.

Moggallana,   p.,  Maudgalyayana,  skt.,  one  of  the  most  prominent

disciples of Buddha, a friend of Sariputta. - XXII, XXVIII.

Muni,  skt.  and p., a thinker, a sage; especially a religious thinker.

Sakyamuni,  the sage of the Sakyas,  is Buddha. - VIII, XIX, XXXVII, LIX.

Nadi-Kassapa,  p.,  Nadi-Kasyapa, skt., brother of the great Kassapa of

Uruvela. - XIX.

Nadika, p. and skt., name of a village. - XCI.

Naga,  p. and skt., literally serpent.  The serpent being regarded as a

superior being, the word denotes a special kind of spiritual beings; a sage, a man of spiritual insight; any superior personality.   Naga kings. - IV.

Nalagiri, name of an elephant. - XXXIX.

Nalanda, p. and skt., a village near Rajagaha. - LXXXIX, XC.

Nanda, p., Siddhatta’s halfbrother, son of Pajapati. - XXIX.

Nanda, daughter of a chief of shepherds, also called Sujata. - X.

Nataputta,   Jain  Prakrit,  Jnyataputra,  skt.,  the  son  of  Jnyata.

Patronym of Vardhamana, the founder of Jainism. - LI.

Neranyjara,  p.,  Nairanyjana, skt., name of a river identified by some

with the Nilajan, by others with the Phalgu. - X, XIV, XCIV.

Nidana,  p.  and skt., cause.  The twelve nidanas, forming the chain of

causation which brings about  the misery  of  the  world.   [See  H.  Oldenberg’s Buddha, His Life, His Doctrine, and his Order,  pp. 224-252]. - XII.

Niggantha,  p.,  Nirgrantha,  skt., literally “liberated from bonds”; a

name adopted by the adherents of the Jaina sect.  - LI;  Nigganthas, give also to the,  LI.  Nigrodha, p., Nyagrodha, skt., a tree, ficus indica well-known for its air roots. - XIV, XCIV.

Nirmana Kaya, skt., the body of transformation. - XCVIII.

Nirvana,  skt.,  Nibbana, p., extinction, viz., the extinction of self;

according to the Hinayana it is defined as “extinction of illusion,” according to the Mahayana as “attainment of truth.”  Nirvana  means, according to the latter, enlightenment, the state of mind  in  which upadana, kilesa, and tanha  are  extinct,  the  happy  condition  of enlightenment, peace and mind, bliss, the glory of righteousness  in this life and beyond, the eternal rest of Buddha after death. Buddha himself has refused to decide the problem whether or not Nirvana  is a final extinction of personality.  When questioned, he indicated by his  silent  that  the solution is not  one  of  those  subjects  a knowledge of which is indispensable for salvation.  - II,  III,  VI, VII,  XII,  XIV,  XV,  XVI, XIX, XX, XXII, XXIII, XXIV, XXVI, XXVII, XXXI,  XXXIV,  XLI,  XLIII,  XLVII,  XLIX, LIII, LIV, LV, LIX, LXIX, LXXIV,  XCIV,  XCVII,  XCVIII; where is Nirvana? LIII; Nirvana not a locality,  LIII;  the city of Nirvana,  XLVII; the harvest, Nirvana, LXXIV; the one aim, Nirvana, LV; Samsara and Nirvana, II, III.

Okkaka,  p.,  Ikshvaku,  skt.,  the name of a mythological family  from

which the chiefs of the Sakyas claim descent. - IV.

Pabbajja,  p.,  pravrajya,  skt.,  the  act  of leaving the  world  for

receiving admittance to the Order.   The first step of the  Buddhist ordination (See Upasampada.)

Pajapati,  p.,  Prajapati or Maha-Prajapati,  skt., the sister of Maya-

devi,  second wife of Suddhodana,  aunt and fostermother of  Buddha.  She  is also called by her husband’s name Gotami (feminine  form  of Gotama). - IV, XXIX, XXXII, XXXVII.

Pajjota, p., Pradyota, skt., name of a king of Ujjeni. - XXX.

Pakati, p., Prakriti, skt., name of a girl of low caste. - LXXVI.

Paramita,  p.  and skt., perfection, or virtue.  The six paramitas are:

almsgiving,  morality,  patience,  zeal or energy,  meditation,  and wisdom.

Paribbajaka,  p.,  Parivrajaka,  skt., a sect belonging to the Tirthika

school. - XXXV.

Pasenadi,  p.,  Prasenajit,  skt., also called Pasenit, king of Kosala,

residing at Savatthi. -  XXIV, XXV.

Pataliputra,  skt.,  Pataliputta, p., also called Pataligama, a city on

the  Ganges  north  of Rajagaha and belonging  to  the  kingdom  of Magadha,  the frontier station against Vriji (Vajji),  the  present Patna.  Buddha is reported to have predicted the future greatness of the place, which is an important passage for determining the time in which the account of Buddha’s sojourn in Pataliputra  was  written.  It is still uncertain,  however,  when Patna became  the  important center  which it is now.   It was the capital of the  country  when Megasthenes,  the ambassador of Seleucus Nicator,  at the end of the third century BCE,  visited India.   He gave in his book a  detailed description of the city.- XC;  Pataliputra, three dangers hang over, XC.

Patimokkha,  p.,  Pratimoksha,  skt., literally “disburdenment.”  It is

the  Buddhist  confession.    Rhys  Davids  says,  “that  is  almost certainly  dates  from the fifth century BCE.   Since  that  time  - during  a  period that is of nearly two thousand and  three  hundred years  - it has been regularly repeated,  twice in  each  month,  in formal meetings of the stricter members of the Order.   It occupies, therefore,  a unique position in the literary history of the  world; and no rules for moral conduct have been for so long a time as these in  constant practical use,  except only those laid down in the  Old Testament and in the works of Confucius.” - XXXV.

Pava, p. and skt., a village where Buddha took his last meal. - XCV.

Pokkharasati, p., Paushkarasati, skt., a Brahman Philosopher. - XLIX.

Pubbarama, p., Purvarama, skt., the Eastern Garden. - XXXIV.

Pukkusa, p., Pukkasha or Pukkasa, skt., name of a low caste. - XCV.

Punnyaji, p., Punyajit, skt., a friend of Yasa. - XVIII.

Raga,  pleasure, desire or lust; a synonym of rati.  The name of one of

Mara’s daughters. - XI.

Rahula,  p. and skt., the son of Buddha, was admitted to the fraternity

while still a boy.  Buddha gave him a lesson  in  truthfulness  [see Chapter  LVI].  He is always named among the prominent disciples  of Buddha and is revered as the patron saint of novices. -  V,  XXVIII, XXIX, LVI.  Rainy season (see Vassa). - XVII, XCIII.

Raja, p. and skt., nominative form of the stem rajan, a king.

Rajagaha,  p., Rajagriha, skt., the capital of Magadha and residence of

king Bimbisara.  - VIII,  XX,  XXI,  XXII,  XXIII,  XXVI, XXX, XXXV, XXXIX, XLII, L, LXXXVIII, XCVIII. Ratana, p., ratna, skt., “jewel.”

Rati,  love,  liking,  a  synonym of raga.   The name of one of  Mara’s

daughters. - XI.

Sahampati,  occurs  only  in  the phrase  “Brahma  Sahampati,”  a  name

frequently  used  in  Buddhist scriptures the meaning  of  which  is obscure.   Burnouf  renders it Seigneur des etres  patients;  Eitel, Lord of the inhabitable parts of all universes;  H.  Kern  maintains that it is synonymous with Sikhin, which is a common term for Agni.

Sakka, p., Sakra, skt., Lord; a cognomen of Indra. - XXI.

Sakya,  p. and skt., the name of a royal race in the northern frontiers

of Magadha. - IV, V, VIII.

Sakyamuni,  p.  and skt., the Sakya sage; a cognomen of Buddha. - VIII,


Sala,  p.  and skt.,  a tree,  vatica robusta; sala-grove, XCVII; sala-

trees, XCVI.

Samadhi,  p.  and skt.,  trance, abstraction, self-control, Rhys Davids

says (Buddhism p.  177):  “Buddhism has not been able to escape from the natural results of the wonder with which abnormal nervous states have always been regarded during the infancy of science..But it must be  added,  to its credit,  that the most ancient Buddhism  despises dreams  and visions;  and that the doctrine of Samadhi is  of  small practical  importance  compared  with  the  doctrine  of  the  noble eightfold  path.”  Ernest Eitel says (Handbook of Chinese  Buddhism, p. 140): “The  term   Samadhi is sometimes used ethically,  when  it desigantes moral self-deliverance from passion and vice.”

Samana,  p.,  Sramana,  skt.,  an scsetic; one who lives under the vow,

LXXI,  LXXIV,  LXXV, LXXXIII, XC; the Samana Gotama, LII; the vision of a samana, VII.

Sambhoga-Kaya, skt., the body of Bliss. - XCVIII.

Sammappadhana,   p.,  Samyakpradhana,  skt.,  right  effort,  exertion,

struggle.   There are four great efforts to overcome sin, which are:

(1) Mastery  over the passions so as to prevent bad  qualities  from rising; (2) suppression of sinful thoughts to put away bad qualities which  have  arisen;  (3) meditation on the seven  kinds  of  wisdom (Bojjhanyga)  in order to produce goodness not previously  existing; and (4) fixed attention or the exertion of preventing the mind  from wandering,  so as to increase the goodness which exists.   [See  the Mahapandhana-Sutta  in  the Digha-Mikaya.   Compare  Buddhist  Birth Stories, p. 89, and Rhys Davids’s Buddhism, pp. 172-173].

Samsara,  p.  and  skt.,  the  ocean of birth  and  death,  transiency,

worldliness, the restlessness of a worldly life,  the  agitation  of selfishness, the vanity fair of life. - II, III, LX, XC.

Sangha,  p.  and  skt.,  the  brotherhood of  Buddha’s  disciples,  the

Buddhist church.  An assembly of at least four has the power to hear confession, to grant absolution, to admit persons to the priesthood, etc.   The  sangha  forms the third constituent of the  Tiratana  or three jewels in which refuge is taken.  - XVII, XVIII, XIX, XX, XXI, XXII, XXIX, XXXII, XXXIV, XXXV, XXXVI, XXXVII, LI, LVII, LXI, XCVII, XCVIII; sangha may be expected to prosper, LXXXVIII.

Sanyjaya,  p.  and skt.,  a wandering ascetic and chief of that sect to

which Sariputta and Moggallana belonged before their  conversion.  - XXII.

Sankhara,  p.,  Samskara,  skt., confection, conformation, disposition.

It  is the formative element in the karma as it has taken  shape  in bodily existence. - LIII.

Sariputta,  p.,  Sariputra,  skt.,  one  of the princeple disciples  of

Buddha;  the Buddhistic St.  Peter. - XXII, XXIV, XXV, XXVIII, XXIX, XXXVII, XL, XLII, LXXXV, LXXXIX; Sariputta’s faith, LXXXV, LXXXIX.

Savaka,  p.,  Sravaka,  skt.,  he  who has heard the  voice  (viz.,  of

Buddha), a pupil, a beginner.  The name is used to designate (1) all personal  disciples of Buddha,  the foremost among whom  are  called Maha-savakas,  and (2) an elementary degree of saintship.   A savaka is  he who is superficial yet in practice and  comprehension,  being compared to a hare crossing the stream of Samsara by swimming on the surface.   [See  Handbook of Chinese Buddhism by  Ernest  Eitel,  p.  157.] - LX.

Sati-patthana,  p.,  Smrityupasthana,  skt.,  meditation;  explained as

“fixing the attention.”  The four objects of earnest meditation are:

(1) the impurity of the body,  (2) the evils arising from sensation, (3)  ideas  or the impermanence of existence,  and  (4)  reason  and character,   or  the  permanency  of  the  dharma.   (Rhys  Davids’s Buddhism,  p.  172.)  The term is different from “bhavana,” although translated  by the same English word.   (Sacred Books of  the  East, vol. XI, p. 62-211).

Savatthi,  p., Sravasti, skt., capital of Northern Kosala.  It has been

identified by General Cunningham with the ruins of  Sahet-Mahet  in Oudh and was situated on the river Rapti,  northwest of  Magadha.  - XXIV, XXV, XXVI, XXXIV, XXXVII, LXX, LXXV, LXXXV, LXXXVII.

Seniya,  p.,  Sainya,  skt., military, warlike, an honorary title given

to Bimbisara the king of Magadha. - XX, XXI, XXX, XXXV.

Siddhattha, p., Siddhartha, skt., Buddha’s proper name.  Etymology, “He

who has reached his goal.”- IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, XV, XXVII, XXVIII, XXIX,  XXXIX,  LVI.  Sigala, p., Srigala, skt., literally, “jackal”; name of a Brahman converted by Buddha. - L.

Simha,  skt.,  Siha,  p.,  literally,  “lion.”  Name of a  general,  an

adherent of the Niggantha sect,  converted by Buddha. - LI; Simha, a soldier, LI; Simha’s question concerning annihilation, LI.

Soma,  p.  and skt., derived from the root su, to press in a winepress;

not  as,   according  to  Eitel,   Chinese  scholars  propose   from “elhilarate  (su)  and  mind (mana).”  Name of a plant  and  of  its juice,  which is intoxicating and is used at Brahmanical  festivals; the Soma drink is   identified with the moon and  personified  as  a deity. - XLIX.

Subahu, p. and skt., a friend of Yasa. - XVIII.

Subhadda,  p.,  Subhadra,  skt.,  name of a samana.  Subhadda, Buddha’s

last  convert,  must not be confounded with another man of the  same name who caused dissension soon after Buddha’s death. - XLII, XCVII.

Suddhodana,  p.  and skt., Buddha’s father.  The word means “possessing

pure rice.”  Buddhists always represent him as a king, but Oldenberg declares that this does not appear in the oldest records, and speaks of him as “a great and wealthy land-owner.”  (See his  Buddha,  pp.  99 and 416-417). - IV, V, VIII, XXVII, XXVIII, XXXI.

Sumana, p. and skt., name of a house-holder. - LXXI.

Suprabuddha, father of Devadatta. - XXXIX.

Sutta,  p.,  sutra,  skt., literally “thread,” any essay, or guide of a

religious character.  Tanha,  p.,  Trishna,  skt.,  thirst; the word denotes  generally all intence desire,  cleaving and  clinging  with passion.  The name of one of Mara’s daughters. - XI.

Tapussa, p. and skt., a merchant. - XIII.

Tarukkha, p., Tarukshya, skt., name of a Brahman philosopher. - XLIX.

Tathagata,  p. and skt., generally explained as “the Perfect One.”  The

highest attribute of Buddha, VII, IX, X, XIV, XVI, XVII, XVIII, XIX,




XC, XCIII, XCIV, XCV,  XCVI,  XCVII,  XCVIII; robe of the Tathagata,

XLVII; soldiers of the Tathagata, XLVII; the law of the body of  the

Tathagata, XCVIII; Tathagatas are only preachers, XLVIII.

Tiratana,  p.,  Triratna, skt., the three jewels of the holy trinity of

the  Buddha,  the Dharma,  and the Sangha,  a doctrine  peculiar  to Northern Buddhism.  (See Trikaya.)

Titthiya,  p.,  Tirthika, skt., a religious school of India in Buddha’s

time. - XXXV.

Trikaya,  the three bodies or personalities of Buddha,  the Dharmakaya,

the Sambhoga-kaya, and the Nirmana-kaya. - XCVIII.

Uddaka, p., Udraka, skt., a Brahman philosopher. - IX.

Ujjeni, p., Ujjayini, skt., name of a city. - XXX.

Upadana,  p.  and skt.,  desire,  a grasping state of mind.  One of the

nidanas.  Upagutta,  p.,  Upagupta, skt., name of a Buddhist monk. - LXXX.

Upaka,  p. and skt., name of a man, a Jain, who met Buddha, but was not

converted by him. - XV.

Upali,  p.  and  skt.,  a  prominent disciple of  Buddha.   Before  his

conversion he was accoring to the Buddhistic tradition, court-barber to the king of the Sakyas. - XXIX, XXXVII, XCVIII.

Upasampada,  p.  and  skt.,  admittance  to the  Buddhist  brotherhood,

ordination.  (See Pabbajja.) Upavattana,  p.,  Upavartana,  skt.,  a grove in Kusinagara.   The word means a rambling-place, a gymnasium.

·         XCVI, XCVII.

Uposatha,  p.,  Upavasatha,  skt.,  the Buddhist sabbath.   Rhys Davids

says,  “The Uposatha days are the four days in the lunar month  when the moon is full,  or new,  or half way between the two.   It is the fourteenth day from the new moon (in short months) and the fifteenth day from the full moon (in long months), and the eigth day from each of these.   The corresponding Sanskrit word is Upavasatha, the fast-day  previous to the offering of the  intoxicating  soma,  connected with the worship of the moon.   Instead of worshipping the moon, the Buddhists  were  to keep the fast-day by special observance  of  the moral precepts;  one of many instances in which Gotama spiritualised existing words and customs.” - XXXV,  XXXVI; observe the Uposatha of Sabbath, XXXV.

Uruvela, p., Urubilva, skt., a place south of Patna on the banks of the

Neranjara river,  now Buddha Gaya.   The residence of  Kassapa,  the chief of the Jatilas. - X, XIX, XX, LXXXII.

Vajji,  p., Vriji, skt., name of a people living in the neighborhood of

Magadha, XLII, LXXXVIII; assemblies of the Vajji, LXXXVIII.

Varana, p. and skt., a tree; Crataeva Roxburghii. - LXVII.

Vardhamana, skt., Vaddhamana, Jaina Prakrit, proper name of the founder

of Jainism.  Also called Jnyataputra in skt., and Nataputta in Jaina Prakrit.

Varuna,  p.  and skt., a Brahman deity, the god of heaven and regent of

the sea; one of the guardians of the world. - XLIX.

Vasavadatta, p. and skt., a courtesan of Mathura. - LXXX.

Vasettha, p., Vasishtha, skt., name of a Brahman. - XLIX.

Vassa,  p.,  Varsha, skt., rain, rainy season.  During the rainy season

of Northern India,  which falls in the months from June to  October, the  samanas could not wander about,  but had to stay in one  place.  It was the time in which the disciples gathered around their master, listening to his instructions.   Thus it became the festive time  of the  year,  Buddhists  come  together and live  in  temporary  huts, holding religious meetings in the open air,  reading the Pitakas and enjoying the Jitakas,  legends and parables of Buddhism.   [See Rhys Davids’s Buddhism, p. 57.]

Vassakara,  p.,  Varshakara,  skt.,  literally “rain-maker.”  Name of a

Brahman, the prime minister of the king of Magadha. - LXXXVIII.

Vedas, XVI, XLIX, LXIX; I know all the Vedas, LIII.

Veluvana,  p.,  Venuvana,  skt.,  a bamboo-grove at Rajagaha, XXI,XXVI;

Veluvana vihara, XXXIX.

Vesali, p., Vaisali, skt., a great city of India, north of Patna. - LI,

Vihara, p. and skt., residence of Buddhist monks or priests; a Buddhist

convent or monastery;  a Buddhist temple.  - XX,  XXIV,  XXV, XXXIV, XXXV, XXXIX, LVI, LXXXVI, XCVI.

Vimala,  p.  and skt.,  (etymology,  the spotless), name of a friend of

Yasa. - XVIII.

Vinaya, XVII.

Visakha,  p.  and skt.,  a wealthy matron of Savatthi,  one of Buddha’s

most distinguished woman lay-disciples.   Says Oldenberg, Buddha, p.  167:  “Every  one  invites  Visakha to  sacrificial  ceremonies  and banquets, and  has the dishes offered to her first; a quest like her brings luck to the house.” - XXXIV;  eight boons of Visakha,  XXXIV; gladness of Visakha, XXXIV.

Yama,  p.  and skt.,  also called Yama-raja, death, the god of death. -

Yasa, p., Yasas, skt., the noble youth of Benares, son of a wealthy man

and one of Buddha’s earliest converts. - XVIII.

Yasodhara,  p.  and  skt.,  wife of prince Gotama Siddhattha before  he

became Buddha.   She became one of the first of Buddhist nuns.  [See Jataka, 87-90; Commentary on Dhammapada, vv. 168,169; Bigandet’s The Life  or  Legend of Gotama,  156-168;  Spence Hardy’s  A  Manual  of Buddhism, 198-204;  Beal’s The Romantic History of Buddha from  the Chinese Sanskrit,  pp.  360-364;  Buddhist Birth Stories, 127.] - V, XXVIII, XXIX, XXXII, XXXIX, LVI.